Like most people from Hawai'i I’m a “poi dog,” which is Hawaiian pidgin for mixed breed or “mutt.” My principal ethnicities are Hawaiian, Portuguese, English-American and Scots. The Pulham family of Ka'u is part of a larger Hawaiian ohana which includes the Enos, Martinson, Lupenui, Ka'apana and Makuakane families.
There was no written Hawaiian language or record-keeping system prior to contact with the west, so I’m very, very fortunate to be able to trace my roots back prior to that event – the arrival of the Englishman James Cook, the first European to “discover” Hawai'i in late 1778 and early 1779. When Cook arrived at Kealakekua Bay on the “Big Island” of Hawai’i, he was officially received by “King” Kalani’ōpu’u -- “King” being the nearest British equivalent for Ali’i, i.e. Hawaiian royalty. Kalani’ōpu’u was the 6th Ali’i of Kohala, 4th Ali’i of Kona and 2nd Ali’i of Ka’u, and ruled over the island of Hawai'i and, interestingly, Hana, Maui, as Paramount Chief. He was my seventh great grandfather.
My Hawaiian lineage comes through my mother, Pauahi; her mother, Lucy Augusta Enos (nee Stone); and her mother, Ke’ali’i holokahiki Emma Stone (nee Pinao). Born February 26 in Punalu'u, Ke’ali’i holokahiki was the offspring of ali'i, and her name refers to the travels of the ali'i between Tahiti and Hawai'i. Her mother, Elizabeth Martin, was the daughter of Kalamau Holoahina, my third great grandmother, born in Waiohinu in 1807. Her father, Ipaapuka, (my fourth great grandfather) was born 1783 in Waiohinu, and according to a newspaper of the time, was "head agriculturalist of the land of Kona." Ipaapuka's mother, Umikaiakaulani Waiolala, and father, Kaahuuiolea (also known as High Chief Kueha, and called Keoua-Kuehu-Ule), were my fifth great grandparents. Umikaiakaulani Waiolala's mother, Kekuehoa (b. 1740) and father, Kamahinamauloa (b.1736), then, were my sixth great grandparents.
Kekuehoa was the daughter of Kalaniop'u, Paramount Chief of Hawaii and Hana, Maui.
Kalani’ōpu’u was uncle to Kamehameha the Great, thus establishing my family connection to the great ali’i who would unify all the Hawaiian Islands under a single rule, and establish the Sovereign Kingdom of Hawai'i. Upon his death, Kalani’ōpu’u left the lands of Kohala to Kamehameha, the lands of Kona to his son Kiwalao, and the lands of Ka'u to his son Keoua. Kalaniopu'u was a warrior king, having united Hawai'i island and part of Maui, and a master of the Hawaiian martial arts (lua); he is widely believed to be the teacher and inspiration for Kamehameha. He, his sons, and Kamehameha spent considerable time in Ka’u, which until this day remains the home of my family. Kalani’ōpu’u died at Wai'ahu'kini, a Hawaiian fishing village near Ka Lae (South Point) of some 25,000 in those days; in my lifetime Wai'ahu'kini has been a shoreline retreat for camping, snorkeling, spearfishing, opihi picking, and wandering the ruins of what was once a thriving community.
Kalaniop'u, by the way, was married to Ahia (Kalanikumaikiekie), daughter of Ali'i Nui Kekaulike - my eighth great grandfather.
The Portuguese immigration to Hawai'i is not well documented, and therefore nor is my Portuguese heritage. My maternal grandfather, Henry Enos, was born in South Kona in 1906, and died in 2007 just a couple of months short of his 101st birthday. Henry's parents were Frank Enos and Gloria Enos (nee Estelbraga). Great-grandfather Frank sailed from Portugal to Hawai'i in one of the waves of Portuguese immigrants looking for work as a Paniolo, or, alternatively, in the sugar plantations. Around 1928 Henry sailed from Kona to Ka'u, landing in Honuapo, as there was yet no good road around the island and steamship was the best means of travel. He soon met and married my Grandmother, Lucy.
Not much is known about my great-grandfather Charles Stone, Sr. (1856-1949), except that the Scotsman arrived in Ka'u by ship, fell in love with the islands, met and married Ke’ali’i holokahiki Pinao, and had so much trouble pronouncing her name that he just called her Emma. Their children were given good haole names - Sarah, Lucy, Mary Jane, Oliver, Charles, and Lincoln. Oliver was a swimming buddy of Duke Kahanamoku, and both Oliver and Lincoln were Battalion Chiefs in the Honolulu fire department. Charlie was an entertainer and purser aboard the luxurious Matson ocean liner SS Lurline. Charles Stone, Sr., left Scotland in the wake of the infamous "clearances," and was of the clan MacIntyre, of Skye, a branch of the family tree we proudly trace back to around 1200. Clan MacIntyre was of Islay, then Skye, before spreading across the highlands from Invergarry throughout the Cairngorms. Our clan motto: Per Ardua.
Pulham is a not-uncomman English name, and in East Anglia you will find the historic old villages of Pulham and Pulham-St. Mary's Market, suggesting that Pulhams have been around a long time. Our English ancestors lived in Suffolkshire, although we've not been able to go back any further than my third great grandfather, William Pulham, and his wife Elizabeth, who were both born in Suffolkshire in 1805. They emigrated first to Canada and then Wisconsin. William died in 1840 in New Hampshire, Elizabeth died later and is buried in Vernon County, Wisconsin. Their son, William, born 1830 in Suffolkshire, was a Civil War vet and married Massay Cavanaugh; he died in 1901 and she in in 1920. Their son Frank was born in 1877 in Vernon County, Wisc., married Dora Chambers, born 1880. Frank died young, aged 22, in 1899 while Dora lived to be 80 years old and died in 1960. Her son was my grandfather Albert Richard Pulham. Albert married Ruby Parr, and together they rain a dairy farm near Cataract, Wisc., for most of their lives. It was a big family, with my father, Floyd, born 1932 and his brothers Jim, DeWitt, Pete and sisters Tilly, Mary, Alberta, Ruby, and Alice.